Elijah's education ended at the third grade, after which he went to work in sawmills and brickyards. When he was sixteen years old, he left home and began working in factories and at other businesses. Poole married Clara Evans — on March 7, The Poole family was among the hundreds of thousands of black families forming the First Great Migration leaving the oppressive and economically troubled South in search of safety and employment.
Read more about the Nation of Islam. Early years and conversion Born in Nebraska, while an infant Malcolm moved with his family to LansingMichigan.
When Malcolm was six years old, his father, the Rev. Earl Little, a Baptist minister and former supporter of the early black nationalist leader Marcus Garveydied after being hit by a streetcar, quite possibly the victim of murder by whites.
After she was committed to an insane asylum inMalcolm and his siblings were sent to foster homes or to live with family members. Malcolm excelled in school, but after one of his eighth-grade teachers told him that he should become a carpenter instead of a lawyer, he lost interest and soon ended his formal education.
There he became involved in petty criminal activities in his teenage years. While in prison for robbery from tohe underwent a conversion that eventually led him to join the Nation of Islaman African American movement that combined elements of Islam with black nationalism.
His decision to join the Nation also was influenced by discussions with his brother Reginald, who had become a member in Detroit and who was incarcerated with Malcolm in the Norfolk Prison Colony in Massachusetts in In order to educate himself, he spent long hours reading books in the prison library, even memorizing a dictionary.
He also sharpened his forensic skills by participating in debate classes. Malcolm X and the Nation of Islam After his release from prison Malcolm helped to lead the Nation of Islam during the period of its greatest growth and influence. Malcolm rose rapidly to become the minister of Boston Temple No.
Recognizing his talent and ability, Elijah Muhammad, who had a special affection for Malcolm, named him the National Representative of the Nation of Islam, second in rank to Muhammad himself. The actual number of members fluctuated, however, and the influence of the organization, refracted through the public persona of Malcolm X, always greatly exceeded its size.
An articulate public speaker, a charismatic personality, and an indefatigable organizer, Malcolm X expressed the pent-up anger, frustration, and bitterness of African Americans during the major phase of the civil rights movement from to He preached on the streets of Harlem and spoke at major universities such as Harvard University and the University of Oxford.
His keen intellect, incisive wit, and ardent radicalism made him a formidable critic of American society. He also criticized the mainstream civil rights movement, challenging Martin Luther King, Jr. Malcolm argued that more was at stake than the civil right to sit in a restaurant or even to vote—the most important issues were black identity, integrityand independence.
Library of Congress, Washington, D. Malcolm urged that the Nation become more active in the widespread civil rights protests instead of just being a critic on the sidelines. Malcolm brought additional bad publicity to the Nation when he declared publicly that Pres.
In response to the outrage this statement provoked, Elijah Muhammad ordered Malcolm to observe a day period of silence, and the break between the two leaders became permanent. Malcolm XMalcolm X, During his pilgrimage to Mecca that same year, he experienced a second conversion and embraced Sunni Islam, adopting the Muslim name el-Hajj Malik el-Shabazz.
Renouncing the separatist beliefs of the Nation, he claimed that the solution to racial problems in the United States lay in orthodox Islam. On the second of two visits to Africa inhe addressed the Organization of African Unity known as the African Union sincean intergovernmental group established to promote African unity, international cooperation, and economic development.
In he founded the Organization of Afro-American Unity as a secular vehicle to internationalize the plight of black Americans and to make common cause with the people of the developing world—to move from civil rights to human rights.
On February 21,Malcolm was assassinated while delivering a lecture at the Audubon Ballroom in Harlem; three members of the Nation of Islam were convicted of the murder.
He was survived by his wife, Betty Shabazzwhom he married inand six daughters.Malcolm X - Civil Rights Activist, Minister(– African-American leader and prominent figure in the Nation of Islam, Malcolm X articulated concepts of race pride and black nationalism in the s and '60s.
Who Was Malcolm X and What Did He Do? Malcolm X (May 19, to February 21, ) was a minister, human r. Malcolm X was a prominent figure during the Civil Rights era. Offering an alternative view to the mainstream Civil Rights movement, Malcolm X advocated for both the establishment of a separate black community (rather than integration) and the use of violence in self-defense (rather than non-violence).
Malcolm X was a prominent figure during the Civil Rights era. Offering an alternative view to the mainstream Civil Rights movement, Malcolm X advocated for both the establishment of a separate black community (rather than integration) and the use of violence in self-defense (rather than non-violence).
Malcolm X, original name Malcolm Little, Muslim name el-Hajj Malik el-Shabazz, (born May 19, , Omaha, Nebraska, U.S.—died February 21, , New York, New York), African American leader and prominent figure in the Nation of Islam who articulated concepts of race pride and black .
Elijah Muhammad (born Elijah Robert Poole; October 7, – February 25, ) was a black religious leader, who led the Nation of Islam (NOI) from until his death in He was a mentor to Malcolm X, Louis Farrakhan and Muhammad Ali, as well as his own son, Warith Deen Mohammed.
Malcolm X Biography. Malcolm X ( – ) was an influential African-American leader of the s. Initially, he was a member of the Nation of Islam, which advocated the separation of black and white Americans.