This section looks at musical artifacts, both of lyres and flutes. They are the oldest existing string instruments, dating to about BCE.
Literary and archaeological evidence[ edit ] King Ziusudra of Shuruppak[ edit ] Main article: LAM who ruled for 10 sars. Then the flood swept over. The next line reads: After the flood swept over, kingship descended from heaven; the kingship was in Kish.
The city of Kish flourished in the Early Dynastic period soon after an archaeologically attested river flood in Shuruppak modern Tell Fara, Iraq and various other Sumerian cities. This flood has been radiocarbon dated to ca. This has led some scholars to conclude that the flood hero was king of Shuruppak at the end of the Jemdet Nasr period ca.
Sumerian flood myth[ edit ] Main article: Sumerian creation myth The tale of Ziusudra is known from a single fragmentary tablet written in Sumerian, datable by its script to the 17th century BC Old Babylonian Empireand published in by Arno Poebel.
After a missing section in the tablet, we learn that the gods have decided to send a flood to destroy mankind. The god Enki lord of the underworld sea of fresh water and Sumerian equivalent of Babylonian god Ea warns Ziusudra, the ruler of Shuruppak, to build a large boat; the passage describing the directions for the boat is also lost.
When the tablet resumes, it is describing the flood. A terrible storm raged for seven days, "the huge boat had been tossed about on the great waters," then Utu Sun appears and Ziusudra opens a window, prostrates himself, and sacrifices an ox and a sheep. After another break, the text resumes, the flood is apparently over, and Ziusudra is prostrating himself before An Sky and Enlil Lordbreathwho give him "breath eternal" and take him to dwell in Dilmun.
The remainder of the poem is lost. Kramer stated "Ziusudra had become a venerable figure in literary tradition by the middle of the third millennium B. Xisuthros was listed as a king, the son of one Ardates, and to have reigned 18 sari.
One saros shar in Akkadian stands for and hence 18 sari was translated as 64, years. Best argued this was a mistranslation; the archaic U4 sign meaning year was confused with the sar sign which both have a 4-sided diamond shape and that Xisuthros actually reigned 18 years.
Flood myth Atrahasis recorded in a 18th C. BCas well as the biblical Noah are similar heroes of deluge myths of the ancient Near East.
With specific reference to Atrahasis - depending on source Atrahasis and Ziusudra are listed as son or grandson of the king Ubara-Tutuand though the genealogies differ, brings the possibility to conflate the two.
Although each version of the flood myth has distinctive story elements, there are numerous story elements that are common to two, three, or four versions. The earliest version of the flood myth is preserved fragmentarily in the Eridu Genesiswritten in Sumerian cuneiform and dating to the 17th century BC, during the 1st Dynasty of Babylon when the language of writing and administration was still Sumerian.
Strong parallels are notable with other Near Eastern flood legendssuch as the biblical account of Noah.The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from ancient Mesopotamia. Dating from the Third Dynasty of Ur (circa BC), it is often regarded as the earliest surviving great work of literature.
The literary history of Gilgamesh begins with five Sumerian poems about 'Bilgamesh' (Sumerian for 'Gilgamesh. Kings of Assyria Assyria or Athura (Aramaic for Assyria) was a Semitic Akkadian kingdom, extant as a nation state from the late 25th or early–24th century BC to BC centred on the Upper Tigris river, in northern Mesopotamia (present day northern Iraq), that came to rule regional empires a number of times through history.
He would have been born almost years after the Epic had been written, and even if the Epic hadn't been lost to history by then, well educated Greeks would have been in no way versed in speaking, reading, or writing ancient Sumerian or Cuneiform.
The Epic of Gilgamesh was discovered by the Western World in the s, and there are no records of it in existing Greek or Roman texts. Creation has been one of the most interesting and intriguing subjects in the Old Testament. In modern Biblical scholarship a number of new interpretations of the early chapters of Genesis have been suggested, especially in the areas of comparative study and literary analysis.
Gilgamesh epic, B.C., is a work of three thousand lines, written on twelve tablets that was discovered amid the ruins of Nineveh and relates the adventures of the imperious Glgamesh and his friend Enkidu (Gilgamesh pp).
Noah’s Flood and the Gilgamesh Epic. by Jonathan Sarfati.
Hardly anything in the Bible has been attacked as much as God’s cataclysmic judgment of Noah’s Flood.