A stalemated king can take one of the enemy pieces that would check the king if the king moves. Iran Persia Iranian shatranj set, glazed fritware12th century. New York Metropolitan Museum of Art. The Karnamak-i Ardeshir-i Papakana Pahlavi epical treatise about the founder of the Sassanid Persian Empirementions the game of chatrang as one of the accomplishments of the legendary hero, Ardashir Ifounder of the Empire.
Total Herodotus also records that this was the number at the Battle of Salamis, despite the losses earlier in storms off Sepia and Euboea, and at the battle of Artemisium.
He claims that the losses were replenished with reinforcements, though he only records triremes from the Greeks of Thrace and an unspecified number of ships from the Greek islands. Aeschyluswho fought at Salamis, also claims that he faced 1, warships there, of which 1, were triremes and fast ships.
The number of 1, for the outset only is also given by Ephorus while his teacher Isocrates claims there were 1, at Doriskos and 1, at Salamis. Among modern scholars some have accepted this number, although suggesting that the number must have been lower by the Battle of Salamis.
The Athenians had been preparing for war with the Persians since the mids BC, and in BC the decision was taken, under the guidance of the politician Themistocles, to build a massive fleet of triremes that would be necessary for the Greeks to fight the Persians.
In BC Xerxes sent ambassadors around Greece asking for earth and water, but making the very deliberate omission of Athens and Sparta. Hellenic alliance[ edit ] A congress of states met at Corinth in late autumn of BC, and a confederate alliance of Greek city-states was formed.
Sparta and Athens had a leading role in the congress but interests of all the states played a part in determining defensive strategy.
Only 70 of the approximately Greek cities sent representatives. Nevertheless, this was remarkable for the disjointed Greek world, especially since many of the city-states in attendance were still technically at war with each other.
Battle of ThermopylaeBattle of ArtemisiumBattle of SalamisBattle of Plataeaand Battle of Mycale The allies had no 'standing army', nor was there any requirement to form one; since they were fighting on home territory, they could muster armies as and when required.
Different-sized allied forces thus appeared throughout the campaign. These numbers are discussed fully in the article for each battle.
Five major food depots had been set up along the path: There, food had been sent from Asia for several years in preparation for the campaign.
Animals had been bought and fattened, while the local populations had, for several months, been ordered to grind the grains into flour. It paused at Doriskos where it was joined by the fleet. Xerxes reorganized the troops into tactical units replacing the national formations used earlier for the march.
A Thessalian delegation suggested that the allies could muster in the narrow Vale of Tempeon the borders of Thessalyand thereby block Xerxes's advance. However, once there, they were warned by Alexander I of Macedon that the vale could be bypassed by at least two other passes, and that the army of Xerxes was overwhelming; the Allies therefore retreated.
The route to southern Greece Boeotia, Attica and the Peloponnesus would require the army of Xerxes to travel through the very narrow pass of Thermopylae. This could easily be blocked by the Allies, despite the overwhelming number of Persians.
Furthermore, to prevent the Persians bypassing Thermopylae by sea, the allied navy could block the straits of Artemisium. This dual strategy was adopted by the congress.
Thermopylae and Artemisium[ edit ] Main articles: When the Allies received the news that Xerxes was clearing paths around Mount Olympusand thus intending to march towards Thermopylae, it was both the period of truce that accompanied the Olympic gamesand the Spartan festival of Carneiaduring both of which warfare was considered sacrilegious.
When Xerxes was eventually persuaded that the Allies intended to contest the pass, he sent his troops to attack. However, at the end of the second day, they were betrayed by a local resident named Ephialtes who revealed to Xerxes a mountain path that led behind the Allied lines. Xerxes then sent his elite guards, the Immortals on a night march to outflank the Allied.
When he was made aware of this maneuver while the Immortals were still en routeLeonidas dismissed the bulk of the Allied army, remaining to guard the rear with Spartans, Thespians, Thebians and perhaps a few hundred others.
On the third day of the battle, the remaining Allies sallied forth from the wall to meet the Persians and slaughter as many as they could.
These ships were to round Euboea and block the line of retreat for the Allied fleet. They staged a hit-and-run attack on some Cilician ships, capturing and destroying them.
In a day of savage fighting, the Allies held on to their position, but suffered severe losses  half the Athenian fleet was damaged  ; nevertheless, the Allies inflicted equal losses on the Persian fleet.
Since the Allied fleet was badly damaged, and since it no longer needed to defend the flank of Thermopylae, they retreated from Artemisium to the island of Salamis.
Salamis[ edit ] Main article: Battle of Salamis Victory at Thermopylae meant that all Boeotia fell to Xerxes; the two cities that had resisted him, Thespiae and Plataeawere captured and razed.
Attica was also left open to invasion, and the remaining population of Athens was thus evacuated, with the aid of the Allied fleet, to Salamis. However, if the isthmus's defensive line could be outflanked, the Allies could be defeated. In the final reckoning, both sides were prepared to stake everything on a naval battle, in the hope of decisively altering the course of the war.
Even after Athens fell to the advancing Persian army, the Allied fleet still remained off the coast of Salamis, trying to lure the Persian fleet to battle.
In any case this project was soon abandoned. With the Persians' naval superiority removed, Xerxes feared that the Greeks might sail to the Hellespont and destroy the pontoon bridges. Plataea and Mycale[ edit ] Main articles:The history of chess can be traced back nearly years, although the earliest origins are uncertain.
The earliest predecessor of the game probably originated in India, before the 6th century AD; a minority of historians believe the game originated in benjaminpohle.com India, the game spread to benjaminpohle.com the Arabs conquered Persia, chess was taken up by the Muslim world .
Even as we say Greco-Persian Wars its not always that all of Greece fought against Persian as their strength and authority was much greater. The Ionian Revolt initiated the First Major Persian War. During BC Cyrus The Great ruled Persia and most of West Asia. During his reign his first captured Lydia, which lay along the coast of Anatolia.
This article is an extract from the book Atlas of Empires, republished with benjaminpohle.com book tells the story of how and why the great empires of history came into being, operated and ultimately declined, and discusses the future of the empire in today's globalized world.
The Greco-Persian Wars or Persian Wars were a series of conflicts between the Greek world and the Persian Empire that started about BC and lasted until BC. Origins. At the end of the 6th century BC, Darius the Great ruled over an immense realm, from western India to eastern Europe.
a city in Boeotia during Persian Wars - sided with Persia because upset with Athens for having helped the small village of Plataea maintain independence from them.
Significant because example of city-state that did not unify with Greece. The Achaemenid Empire is noted in Western history as the antagonist of the Greek city-states during the Greco-Persian Wars and for the emancipation of the Jewish exiles in Babylon. The historical mark of the empire went far beyond its territorial and military influences and included cultural, social, technological and religious influences as well.