This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Tiger and Hanley described a multiple-schedule procedure to reduce ill-timed requests, which involved providing children with two distinct continuous signals that were correlated with periods in which teacher attention was either available or unavailable. The current study extended the application of multiple schedules by evaluating the effectiveness of the procedure when implemented by private-school teachers in 3 elementary classrooms.
In the current investigation, we trained 2 individuals to emit different communication responses to request a the rein- forcer for destructive behavior in a given situation e. Next, we taught the participants to request each reinforcer in the presence of a different discriminative stimulus S D we evaluated the effects of differential reinforcement of communication DRC using the functional and alternative reinforcers and correlated S D s, with and without extinction of destructive behavior.
During all applications, DRC in combination with S D naled available reinforcers rapidly reduced destructive behavior to low levels regardless of whether the functional reinforcer or an alternative reinforcer was available or whether reinforcement for destructive behavior was discontinued i. With FCT, the individual is taught a communicative response that produces ac- cess to the reinforcer responsible for main- tenance of the problem behavior.
Department of Health and Human Services.
We express our appreciation to Steve Lin- dauer for his excellent clinical work on one of the cases presented in this paper. Requests for reprints should be sent to Wayne W. Broadway, Baltimore, Maryland Hanley, Piazza, Fisher, Contrucci, and Maglieri found that both of their participants showed a clear preference for FCT over NCR when they were allowed to choose between the two treatments in a con- current-chains arrangement.
For example, recent studies have reported communication rates of one per minute or higher for most clients Hagopian et al. Second, individuals may request reinforcement at times when it is impossible or inconvenient to deliver e. In these situations, rein- forcement may be delayed e.
Consistent with this supposition, Hagopian et al. Thus, procedures are needed to increase the effectiveness of FCT in situations in which it is impractical or impossible to deliver a given reinforcer.
In the self-control literature, in- dividuals are given a choice between a small- er, more immediate reinforcer i. Several techniques have been developed to teach individuals to choose the self-control option and receive the better payoff, which Fisher et al.
In a second case, Fisher et al. In a third case, a punishment procedure was used to decrease destructive behavior when rein- forcement was not immediately available cf. Flora, ; Ross, Each of these three techniques was successful in teaching the participants in the Fisher et al.
However, there may be sit- uations in which a given type of reinforce- ment may be unavailable for more extended periods e. In addition, there may be situations in which the availability of reinforcement may change from one mo- ment to the next e.
In these situations, alternative procedures may be needed to teach clients to tolerate the unavailability of a given reinforcer. Another technique that may lessen the potential negative effects of delayed or de- nied reinforcement during FCT is to corre- late either the availability or unavailability of reinforcement with a signal e.
Two recent investigations have shown that non- contingent presentation of alternative or substitute reinforcers e. The use of alternative or substitute reinforcers during FCT might similarly facilitate reduc- tions in destructive behavior, especially if the availability of each reinforcer was signaled by a discriminative stimulus S.Functional communication training (FCT) is a popular treatment for problem behaviors, but its effectiveness may be compromised when the client emits the target communication response and reinforcement is either delayed or denied.
Read "ESTABLISHING DISCRIMINATIVE CONTROL OF RESPONDING USING FUNCTIONAL AND ALTERNATIVE REINFORCERS DURING FUNCTIONAL COMMUNICATION TRAINING, Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic .
Functional Communication Training (FCT) Brief Introduction Establishing discriminative control of responding using functional Braithwaite, K. &chdale,Ri A. (). Functional communication training to replace challenging behaviors across two. Decreasing excessive functional communication responses while treating destructive behavior using response restriction.
thus minimizing exposure to the establishing operation for destructive W.W. Fisher, D.E. Kuhn, R.H. ThompsonEstablishing discriminative control of responding using functional and alternative reinforcers . A functional analysis was completed first to identify the reinforcer responsible for each child's destructive behavior.
Functional analysis results were then used to design an FCT treatment for each child during which a card-touch response was taught that resulted in access to the reinforcer previously maintaining destructive behavior. Establishing discriminative control of responding using functional and alternative reinforcers during functional communication training.
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