In quantum physics one meter is also one meter, but the elimination of distance, or the approximation or acceptance of something, changes that object or at least contains a wider spectrum of interpretative possibilities, so that the comparative of focused concretization is a well facetted ambiguity in the sense of quantum physics.
In France, summer had a special resonance. Given the brutal impact of both World Wars, how have they been remembered, how are they remembered in the present, and how has the nation sought to come to terms with their legacies?
InHenry Rousso published his classic study The Vichy Syndrome, in which he argued that the memory of Vichy in postwar France is like a malady, a syndrome that ebbs and flows, that goes dormant and then erupts spectacularly in the present as a result of a political scandal, or the release of a powerful film, or even the publication of a work of history that challenges accepted myths about the period and French complicity with the Nazis.
In the late s and s, it inspired most visibly and spectacularly the trials for crimes against humanity of the Nazi Klaus Barbie and Vichy officials Paul Touvier and Maurice Papon for their roles in the destruction of French and European Jewry.
In politics and in national commemorations, the Vichy past has also persistently made its presence felt.
The vast majority were deported to their deaths. In the new millennium, former President Nicolas Sarkozy angered many by suggesting that French school children should each adopt the memory a French Jewish child killed in the Holocaust.
The suggestion was arguably morbid, and certainly insensitive. In literature and films, the Vichy past and World War II are a constant source of inspiration, meditation, and provocation, and have been since the Liberation in That trend does not seem to be abating. Today, a third generation of French writers — too young to have experienced the war themselves, and also too young to have been shaped by their parents memories of the conflict — are taking it as their subject.
Some are also revising the past in problematic ways in their fictions. InClaude Lanzmann, the maker of the documentary Shoah, denounced this new generation of writers for falsifying the reality of World War II and judging it anachronistically.
To return to If the commemorative events of Summer are any indication, more work needs to be done both in fully accepting the realities of that past and acknowledging responsibility for them.
For example, the D-Day celebrations in Normandy, in the presence of world leaders including Barack Obama and Vladimir Putin, were designed to place France on an equal footing with other Allied invaders of June 6,and to celebrate European unity. French military jet flyovers, streaming red, white, and blue smoke behind them, and the celebration of a veteran of the Kieffer Commando, a small French unit that landed at the beach at Ouistreham, placed a premium on French participation while overshadowing the much greater contributions of the other Allies.
Additionally, the coupling of the Kieffer Commando veteran with a Wehrmacht veteran seemed strained, nearly absurd. Given the horrific nature of the fighting and the brutality of the Nazi military forces present at the time, an SS veteran would have been more representative and appropriate.
But of course no exercise in Franco-German and European reconciliation could have tolerated the presence of such a figure at the ceremony. A photograph exhibit of the Liberation of Paris at the Carnavalet Museum downplayed or ignored important aspects of the historical context of that uprising.
For example, victorious Allied troops in Normandy had set the stage for the liberation of the city. Among those who switched sides most readily at the liberation were the Parisian police, many of whose members had earlier rounded up Jews for deportation at the behest of the Vichy regime and the Nazis.
Moreover, the essay cast the Americans in the role of rivals rather than allies of de Gaulle and the Free French. It was the [French] people who started the liberation of Paris, not the Americans with their plans for a military administration.
History is being revised. This appears to extend, remarkably, to the French attitudes and behavior toward Jews during the Occupation.
As a result of the renewal of the Israeli- Palestinian conflict and the protests it generated, familiar and violent expressions of anti-Semitism roiled the streets of the capital and the surrounding suburbs in late July.
These included an attack on a synagogue in the Marais district and, a few days later, the burning of Jewish businesses in the suburb of Sarcelles. France in a State of Shock. Against the backdrop of increasing, and increasingly murderous, anti-Semitic provocations in France and Europe over the past several years, the attacks of were ominous indeed.
For Rousso, the extreme destructiveness of World War I in Europe — and its terrible cost in human lives — and the unprecedented horror of World War II were such that each created a profound rupture with the past.
At the same time, the two wars destroyed any confidence in and sense of the future, along with the idea of progress that inspires faith in it. But accomplishing the latter was, and is, no easy task, given the way the former is now experienced.
The relationship of modern societies to history, and certainly recent history, is one that is profoundly marked by conflict:General Rule: When discussing the events depicted in literature, use the present tense unless there is a strong reason not to.
The assumption is that the events are always occurring at the present moment for the reader. I most often use the present tense in personal essays when I am writing about the past—about events anywhere from the recent past to 30, 40 years removed.
When I write in the present tense in nonfiction, it’s a kind of withdrawal into all of the available memory and evidence I can find as I look for the shape that might be there. The passive voice is a grammatical "voice".The noun or noun phrase that would be the object of a corresponding active sentence (such as "Our troops defeated the enemy") appears as the subject of a sentence or clause in the passive voice ("The enemy was defeated by our troops")..
The subject of a sentence or clause featuring the passive voice typically denotes the recipient of the action (the.
Present-Tense Verbs. The tense of the verb in a sentence reflects the time at which the action is set. In historical studies that is, by definition, in the past. The vast majority of verbs used in history papers are past-tense (e.g.
came, saw, conquered). When the topic is literature, however, it's a different matter. A resident’s surgical skill is judged by his technique and his speed. You can’t be sloppy and you can’t be slow. From your first wound closure onward, spend too much time being precise and the scrub tech will announce, “Looks like we’ve got a plastic surgeon on our hands!”.
Parisin the Present Tenseisa twilight novel, and its love affair, essential to any Helprin work, is a complex one, haunted by time Helprin, author of the indelibleWinter’s TaleandA Soldier of the Great War, has always been most comfortable in the epic mode, retaining a classicist’s eye for beauty while preserving enough of the contemporary world to speak to the present.