Studying the complex issues of this field has instituted many key insights.
This body of work has burgeoned since the late 20th century when female scholars focused attention on women in a concerted effort to redress a longstanding gender bias in Africanist research.
Equally relevant are the changes introduced by external forces in the 19th and 20th centuries: Together these interactions affected women with both gains and losses. In hierarchical African societies, for example, elite women may hold positions of leadership, but their authority was reduced under colonization.
Generally women fare better in matrilineal societies than patrilineal ones, but Christianity, Islam, and modernity have promoted the shift to patrilineal societies. In contemporary matrilineal societies, however, husbands dominate in marriage, and males exercise more authority than females.
Marriage and reproduction are given a high value in African societies, placing women in an ambivalent position: Polygyny continues to be widely practiced though it is declining somewhat due to changing economic systems and the high value placed on education.
Unlike in the West, women have been and continue to be the farmers, important because agriculture has been the source of food for families. As traders women supply families with foodstuffs and manufactured goods, but as they are positioned in the informal economy, at times they attract negative attention from the state.
Yet, the number of female politicians, scholars, lawyers, and activists is increasing throughout Africa. General Overviews Covering the period from untilthese overviews reveal significant changes in scholarly approaches when viewed chronologically; equally important, each one represents a different perspective.
The term women was used for research in the s, and historians continue to use it. Gender was introduced in and has become the conceptual basis for interdisciplinary as well as anthropological studies. Paulme represents the initial comprehensive overview, a watershed moment in scholarship on women.
Each of the six essays and the introduction, authored by female anthropologists, demonstrates the value of research focused on women but contextualized in their very different societies. Hafkin and Bayone of the first interdisciplinary collections, is focused on women of East and West Africa and includes works by two African scholars and two male scholars.
The work is notable for its critique of early male scholars and several essays that have become required reading; the topics exhibit a wide reach, ranging from spirit mediums to economic change.
Potash critically reviews the existing literature on gender in the chapter written by the author. Especially valuable is the argument that integrating gender studies into the analysis of social processes economy, marriage, religion, enriches the understanding of those essential dynamics.
Transitioning into the 21st century, scholars ventured into new domains. Hodgson and McCurdy departs from previous studies to identify women who have disrupted the web of social relationships and reconfigured the gendered order in the process.
In particular, the article by Tamale argues that homosexuality challenges masculine power within sexual relations and, therefore, disrupts the core of the heterosexist social order.
Essays by Boris and Ebron both provide rich theoretical considerations. An attempt to cover the wide range of issues relevant to gender in the 21st century, Falola and Amponsah encompasses female sexuality, motherhood, homosexuality, and more, capturing multiple approaches to gender.
In Kevanethe author has considered the role of gender relations in the dynamics of land tenure, health care, marriage, and other contexts; it is a welcome study representing a model that integrates gender into the mainstream.The Twenty-Seventh Annual Men and Masculinities Conference of the American Men's Studies Association will take place in Brandon, Manitoba at Brandon University April , Women and gender studies.
In WGS (Introduction to Women and Gender Studies), we have seen many examples in the news that have related to theories and issues from the textbook and from lecture (e.g.
homophobia with pasta ads; genetic testing of athletes). “Ultimately, Jowett’s analysis of the genres and gendered negotiations of Buffy provide both a useful introduction to gender analysis of popular culture artifacts and a commentary on femininities and masculinities in post-feminist society.
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Custom Term Paper and Essay Writing Services, Custom Research Papers for School. Essay competition Title: <Make gender equality a reality> Submitted by: PERWANEE Ashini School: RGSSS Class: Lower 6 s1 Home adress: Mahabali Road Camp-Ithier Flacq Date Gender is a social construction as well as biologically determined through chromosomes, brain structure and hormonal differences.
Gender Roles “Gender is the costume, a mask, a straightjacket in which men and women dance their unequal dance” (Kearl). Throughout history, women have been treated with unequal and unjust standards in comparison to their male counterparts.