Department of Geography and Geology The "Demographic Transition" is a model that describes population change over time. By "model" we mean that it is an idealized, composite picture of population change in these countries.
Advanced Search Like the rest of the world, the US is an ageing society. This will place substantial additional pressure on publicly-funded health, long-term and income support programmes for older people.
This paper analyses the demographic changes that the US faces and how they will affect those programmes, concentrating on the factors that may affect the economic burden that these programmes impose. Demographic change and its consequences for health care An ageing society Like the rest of the world, the US is an ageing society Table 1.
Over this time period, the proportion of the population that is over the age of 65 will increase from Two points are noteworthy about this demographic change.
First, while a significant proportion of the US is elderly, much of Europe already has a higher proportion of its population that is over the age of For example, in The ratio of people ages 16—64 to those age 65 and over the aged dependency ratio is projected to decline from 5.
The slow growth in the working age population will mean that there will be relatively fewer people to pay the taxes necessary to support public programmes for the older population and fewer people to provide the services that older people need.
Implications for organization and delivery of health care The ageing of the population will have a major impact on the organization and delivery of health care. Of particular importance will be the shift from acute to chronic illnesses and the likely growing shortage of health care workers, especially nurses and paraprofessionals.
First, the style of medicine will need to change from one-time interventions that correct a single problem to the ongoing management of multiple diseases and disabilities; doctors and patients will have to have an ongoing relationship designed to help patients cope with illnesses rather than curing them.
Third, new ways will need to be found to integrate medical and long-term care services, a feat that will be difficult in the US because of the fragmentation of the financing and delivery systems. Low wages and benefits, hard working conditions, heavy workloads and a job that has been stigmatized by society make worker recruitment and retention difficult.
While a short-term recession could temporarily relieve the worker shortage, the gap between the large projected increase in demand for acute and long-term care services and the slow projected growth in the labour force signals a dramatic long-run imbalance. Public programmes for older people Like other developed countries, the US has large public programmes for the older population that provide health care, long-term care, and income support.
While these account for the vast bulk of government spending for the older population, there are also numerous other smaller public programmes that provide housing, social services, transportation, and additional cash assistance.
Acute care financing Acute care services for older people, such as hospital and physician care, are financed through a mix of public and private sources. Medicare is a publicly financed and administered, social insurance programme, with near universal eligibility.
In addition to older people, the programme also covers younger people with disabilities who have a significant work history. The programme operates as an open-ended entitlement to individuals. While enrolment in Part B is technically voluntary, virtually all older people enrol.
The programme covers a limited amount of skilled nursing home and home health care. Proposals to provide coverage for outpatient prescription drugs for older people was seriously considered in and The declining economic situation and the shift of priorities for spending to anti-terrorism activities in the wake of the tragedies of 11 Septembermake enactment of additional benefits unlikely.
In the absence of action at the national level, some states are developing pharmaceutical assistance programmes for the low-income elderly and disabled populations who are not eligible for Medicaid, the federal-State health programme for low-income people or people with high medical expenses.
An important recent trend has been the increase and then levelling off during the s of enrolment in health maintenance organizations, which limit the choice of providers. By far the dominant source of long-term care funding is Medicaid.
Approximately two-thirds of nursing home residents have their care paid by Medicaid. With some exceptions, the Medicaid programme operates as an open-ended entitlement to individuals. Medicare covers skilled, relatively short-term care provided by home health agencies and nursing homes, not traditional long-term care.
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Retirement income Retirement income is financed through a combination of public and private pensions, savings, and welfare payments. In addition, the Disability Insurance programme provides income support to people with disabilities with a significant work history.
Retirees are eligible for reduced benefits at age 62 and full benefits at age In order to receive benefits, individuals must work for at least 10 years or be the spouse of an individual who worked for at least 10 years.
Unlike most private pensions, Social Security benefits increase each year with inflation. Social Security and the Disability Insurance programmes are primarily financed by payroll taxes levied on salaries.The challenges of studying urbanization have nonetheless resulted in the spread of urban functions over wide geographic areas.
As a result, one lesson from recent comparative analysis it is that well-managed small cities are more able to cope with many of the challenges associated with rapid population growth. Acknowledgements.
Population ageing is an increasing median age in the population of a region due to declining fertility resulting in a decline of replacement ratios.
s Health Organization set up guidelines to encourage “active aging” and to help local governments address the challenges of an aging population (Global Age-Friendly Cities) with regard. India has come a long way in modernizing its economy, reducing poverty and improving living standards for a large segment of its population.
Its economy has been one of the largest contributors to global growth over the last decade, accounting for about 10% of the world’s increase in economic. Much of this migration follows a rural-to-urban pattern, and, as a result, the Earth's population is also increasingly urbanized.
As recently as , only one-third of the world's population lived in cities. Explain the Geographical Challenges Resulting from a Greying Population Essay Explain the geographical challenges resulting from a greying population An aging of population (also known as demographic aging, and population aging) is a summary term for shifts in the age distribution (i.e.
age structure) of a population toward older ages.
Earth's population is approaching seven billion at the same time that resource limits and environmental degradation are becoming more apparent every day.