CERMAT issues final tests for the state part of the exam, documentation and practical tests, holds training for teachers who correct essays and supervise the students during the exams. The main part of the company is the tech centre, which is used for auto correcting the students exams.
Chinese seal and red seal paste Yinnihe seal paste boxMing dynasty There are two types of seal paste depending on what base material they are made of.
The standard colour is vermilion red or lighter or darker shades of red but other colours can be used such as black, navy, etc. The red paste is made from finely pulverized cinnabarmixed with castor oil and silk strands.
The silk strands bind the mixture together to form a very thick substance. It has a very oily appearance and tends to be a bright red in colour. The red paste is made from finely pulverized cinnabar, mixed with castor oil and moxa punk.
Because the base is a plant one that has been pulverised, the texture is very loose due to the fact that it does not bind. The appearance is sponge like and not oily. Plant-based paste tends to dry more quickly than silk-based pastes because the plant extract does not hold onto the oil as tightly as silk.
Depending on the paper used, plant pastes can dry in 10 to 15 minutes. The more absorbent the paper is, the faster it dries as the paper absorbs most of the oil. Also, plant pastes tend to smudge more easily than silk pastes due to the loose binding agent.
The paste is kept covered after it has been used, in its original container be it plastic or ceramic. It is kept in an environment away from direct sunlight and away from intense heat to prevent it from drying out.
The paste for silk based pastes need to be stirred with a spatula every month or so to avoid the oil sinking down and drying out the paste as well as to prepare it for use.
A good paste would produce a clear impression in one go; if the impression is not clear requiring further impressions then it indicates that the paste is either too dry or the cinnabar has been depleted.
When the seal is pressed onto the printing surface, the procedure differs according to plant or silk based paste. For silk based paste, the user applies pressure, often with a specially made soft, flat surface beneath the paper.
For plant based paste, the user simply applies light pressure. As lifting the seal vertically away from its imprint may rip or damage paper, the seal is usually lifted off one side at a time, as if bent off from the page.
After this, the image may be blotted with a piece of paper to make it dry faster, although this may smudge it.
Usually there needs to be a pile of soft felt or paper under the paper to be imprinted for a clear seal impression. Usage across East Asia[ edit ] Chinese usage[ edit ] Scheme of Chinese seal, seal paste, and technique to use them. An East Asian seal used to belong to a Chinese merchant in the s and 40s Many people in China possess a personal name seal.
Artists, scholars, collectors and intellectuals may possess a full set of name seals, leisure seals, and studio seals. A well-made seal made from semi-precious stones can cost between and yuan.
Seals are still used for official purposes in a number of contexts. When collecting parcels or registered post, the name seal serves as an identification, akin to a signature. In banks, traditionally the method of identification was also by a seal. Seals remain the customary form of identification on cheques in mainland China and Taiwan but not in Hong Kong where signatures are required.
Today, personal identification is often by a hand signature accompanied by a seal imprint. Seals can serve as identification with signatures because they are difficult to forge when compared to forging a signature and only the owner has access to his own seal. Seals are also often used on Chinese calligraphy works and Chinese paintingsusually imprinted in such works in the order from top to bottom of name seal, leisure seal sthen studio seal.
Owners or collectors of paintings or books will often add their own studio seals to pieces they have collected. This practice is an act of appreciation towards the work. Some artworks have had not only seals but inscriptions of the owner on them; for example, the Qianlong Emperor had as many as 20 different seals for use with inscriptions on paintings he collected.
Provided that it is tastefully done for example, not obscuring the body of the painting, appropriate inscription, fine calligraphy, etc. Seals are usually carved by specialist seal carvers, or by the users themselves. Specialist carvers will carve the user's name into the stone in one of the standard scripts and styles described above, usually for a fee.
On the other hand, some people take to carving their own seals using soapstone and fine knives, which are widely available and is cheaper than paying a professional for expertise, craft and material. Results vary, but it is possible for individuals to carve perfectly legitimate seals for themselves.
As a novelty souvenir, seal carvers also ply tourist business at Chinatowns and tourist destinations in China.Below are tips on how to write appreciation letters, as well as a list of appreciation letter samples to use as templates for a variety of personal and professional .
A sincere and concise thank you letter, like the ones in our appreciation letter samples, can be a truly powerful and impactful correspondence. The next step is making sure your appreciation letter gets into the right hands at the right time.
Aug 30, · Always try to write a letter of appreciation within 3 days of the event you’re thankful for so it seems more genuine and timely. Then, start with the date, recipient’s name and address, and salutation to introduce the letter%(36). Grammar Bytes! Grammar Instruction with Attitude.
Includes detailed terms, interactive exercises, handouts, PowerPoint presentations, videos, and more! No objection certificate from landlord - I have no objection and convey my consent to.
FREE Sample Appreciation Letters Express gratitude with a heartfelt letter of appreciation. English. Spanish. Thank a business for good service, low prices, or professional courtesies Write a farewell letter to a person who is leaving employment; Write a farewell letter to a person who is retiring; Write a farewell letter to management, co.