Causes[ edit ] The main causes of water pollution in the Ganges river are the increase in the population density, various human activities such as bathing, washing clothes, the bathing of animals, and dumping of various harmful industrial waste into the river. Human waste[ edit ] The river flows through 29 cities with populations over ,; 23 cities with populations between 50, and , and about 48 towns. Industrial waste[ edit ] Because of the establishment of a large number of industrial cities on the bank of the Ganges like Kanpur, Allahabad, Varanasi and Patna, countless tanneries, chemical plants, textile mills, distilleries, slaughterhouses, and hospitals prosper and grow along this and contribute to the pollution of the Ganges by dumping untreated waste into it.
Causes[ edit ] The main causes Human waste in ganga water pollution in the Ganges river are the increase in the population density, various human activities such as bathing, washing clothes, the bathing of animals, and dumping of various harmful industrial waste into the rivers.
Human waste[ edit ] The river flows through 30 cities with populations over ,; 23 cities with populations between 50, and , and about 48 towns. Industrial waste[ edit ] Because of the establishment of a large number of industrial cities on the bank of the Ganges like Kanpur, Prayagraj, Varanasi and Patna, countless tanneries, chemical plants, textile mills, distilleries, slaughterhouses, and hospitals prosper and grow along this and contribute to the pollution of the Ganges by dumping untreated waste into it.
The ash is dumped into ponds from which a slurry is filtered, mixed with domestic wastewater, and then released into the Pandu River.
Fly ash contains toxic heavy metals such as lead and copper. The amount of parts per million of copper released in the Pandu before it even reaches the Ganges is a thousand times higher than in uncontaminated water.
Although a relatively low proportion, they are a cause for major concern because they are often toxic and non-biodegradable. Some materials like food, waste or leaves are left in the Ganges which are responsible for its pollution.
Traditional beliefs hold that being cremated on its banks and to float down the Ganges will atone for the sins of those who die and carry them directly to salvation. In Varanasi alone, an estimated forty thousand bodies are cremated every year, many of those are only half-burnt.
Bangladesh is actively considering to construct Ganges Barrage Project for mitigating the salinity problem.
Most of the water available at the upstream of the Kanpur barrage is used during dry season for the cities drinking water needs. Refer to Google Earth maps These lift irrigation schemes are pumping out most of the base flows available in the main river down stream of Kanpur city.
In addition, a series of cascading barrage cum bridges are to be constructed across the river from Kanpur to Allahabad to increase the surface area of impounded polluted water in the river so that it serves as vast natural oxidation ponds.
Coliform bacteria levels in the Ganges have also been tested to be at 5, a level too high to be safe for agricultural use let alone drinking and bathing.
Effectively, chromium levels have not decreased in the Ganges even after a common treatment plant was established in It now stands at more than 70 times the recommended maximum level. A strong positive correlation between mercury levels in muscle with food habit and fish length was found.
Listed as an endangered species, their population is believed to be less than Hydroelectric and irrigation dams along the Ganges that prevents the dolphins from travelling up and down river is the main reason for their reducing population.
This turtle inhabits deep rivers, streams, large canals, lakes and ponds, with a bed of mud or sand. According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature, freshwater turtle species are vulnerable.
Due to their long lifespan and high trophic level in the aquatic food web, turtles are vulnerable to heavy metals pollution, a major kind of pollution in the Ganges. Singh, a paediatrician at Varanasi Shiv Prasad Gupta Hospitaltheir parents rarely mention that they have been swimming in the river.
They don't appear to have made the connection, he says. After a long struggle, British India agreed on 5 November that the uninterrupted flow of the Ganges is the rudimentary right of Hindu believers. The day is known as a 'Aviral Ganga Samjhauta Divas' Uninterrupted Ganga flow agreement day in the history of India and the agreement came into existence on 19 December which is known as Agreement of The sanctity of the agreement is not preserved by the state and central governments of India after independence though it is legally valid.
More and more river water is diverted for irrigation use converting the river into a polluted sewer. Discuss Proposed since May Its main objective was to improve the water quality by the interception, diversion and treatment of domestic sewage and to prevent toxic and industrial chemical wastes from identified polluting units from entering the river.
The other objectives of the GAP are as follows: Control of non-point pollution from agricultural run off, human defecation, cattle wallowing and the disposal of human remains in the river. Research and development to conserve the biotic diversity of the river to augment its productivity.
Rehabilitation of soft-shelled turtles for pollution abatement. Resource recovery options such as methane production for energy generation and use of aquaculture for revenue generation.
To act as trend setter for taking up similar action plans in other grossly polluted stretches in other rivers. The ultimate objective of the GAP is to have an approach of integrated river basin management considering the various dynamic interactions between abiotic and biotic eco-system.
Notwithstanding some delay in the completion of the first phase of the GAP it has generated considerable interest and set the scene for evolving a national approach towards replicating this program for the other polluted rivers of the country.Countless tanneries, chemical plants, textile mills, distilleries, slaughterhouses, and hospitals contribute to the pollution of the Ganges by dumping untreated waste into it. Industrial effluents are about 12% of the total volume of effluent reaching the Ganges.
About NMCG,National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA),Ganga,National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG),a registered society under the Societies Registration Act, ,is the implementing wing of NGRBA and its General Body is chaired by the Minister, Environment, Forests and Climate Change.
80% of the waste in the Ganges basin is sewage (Vass, ). Of the facilities studied across India, 45 failed to meet the minimum treatment required (CPCB, ). This means 40% of sewage treatment plants are operating below requirements.
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