The name Confucius is a Latinized version of the transliteration K'ung-fu-tzu. A thinker of unmatched influence in Eastern civilization, Confucius was a teacher and minor government official whose philosophy has been preserved in the Lun-yu The Analectsa collection of sayings attributed to him and his disciples. The Analects contains remarks on a wide variety of subjects, including government, personal conduct, warfare, and family, and has been subject to diverse, even diametrically conflicting interpretations. For over two thousand years, Confucianism has endured as the foundation of Chinese philosophy.
Confucianism was perceived by the Mongols as a Chinese religion, and it had mixed fortunes under their rule. The teachings of the Neo-Confucian school of Zhu Xi from the Song period were introduced to the Mongol court at Zhongdu in the late s but… The thought of Confucius The story of Confucianism does not begin with Confucius.
Nor was Confucius the founder of Confucianism in the sense that the Buddha was the founder of Buddhism and Jesus Christ the founder of Christianity.
Rather, Confucius considered himself a transmitter who consciously tried to reanimate the old in order to attain the new. He proposed revitalizing the meaning of the past by advocating a ritualized life.
He had faith in the cumulative power of culture. The fact that traditional ways had lost vitality did not, for him, diminish their potential for regeneration in the future.
ConfuciusConfucius, illustration in E. Werner's Myths and Legends of China, The historical context The scholarly tradition envisioned by Confucius can be traced to the sage-kings of antiquity. Although the earliest dynasty confirmed by archaeology is the Shang dynasty 18th—12th century bcethe historical period that Confucius claimed as relevant was much earlier.
This elaborate system of mutual dependence was based on blood ties, marriage alliances, and old covenants as well as on newly negotiated contracts. Its implementation enabled the Western Zhou dynasty to survive in relative peace and prosperity for more than five centuries.
Inspired by the statesmanship of Zhougong, Confucius harboured a lifelong dream to be in a position to emulate the duke by putting into practice the political ideas that he had learned from the ancient sages and worthies.
Although Confucius never realized his political dream, his conception of politics as moral persuasion became more and more influential. Lord on High may have referred to the ancestral progenitor of the Shang royal lineage, but heaven to the Zhou kings, although also ancestral, was a more-generalized anthropomorphic god.
This emphasis on benevolent rulership, expressed in numerous bronze inscriptions, was both a reaction to the collapse of the Shang dynasty and an affirmation of a deep-rooted worldview. Partly because of the vitality of the feudal ritual system and partly because of the strength of the royal household itself, the Zhou kings were able to control their kingdom for several centuries.
In bce, however, they were forced to move their capital eastward to present-day Luoyang to avoid barbarian attacks from Central Asia.
Real power thereafter passed into the hands of feudal lords. Since the surviving line of the Zhou kings continued to be recognized in name, they still managed to exercise some measure of symbolic control. In so doing he attempted to redefine and revitalize the institutions that for centuries had been vital to political stability and social order: Confucius did not accept the status quo, which held that wealth and power spoke the loudest.
He felt that virtue deboth as a personal quality and as a requirement for leadership, was essential for individual dignity, communal solidarity, and political order. The Analects has often been viewed by the critical modern reader as a collection of unrelated reflections randomly put together.
That impression may have resulted from the unfortunate perception of Confucius as a mere commonsense moralizer who gave practical advice to students in everyday situations. Interchanges with various historical figures and his disciples are used to show Confucius in thought and action, not as an isolated individual but as the centre of relationships.
The purpose, then, in compiling the distilled statements centring on Confucius seems not to have been to present an argument or to record an event but to offer an invitation to readers to take part in an ongoing conversation. Through the Analects Confucians for centuries learned to reenact the awe-inspiring ritual of participating in a conversation with Confucius.
When one of his students reportedly had difficulty describing him, Confucius came to his aid: Why did you not simply say something to this effect: His strong sense of mission, however, never interfered with his ability to remember what had been imparted to him, to learn without flagging, and to teach without growing weary.
What he demanded of himself was strenuous: It is these things that cause me concern: The community that Confucius created was a scholarly fellowship of like-minded men of different ages and different backgrounds from different states. They were attracted to Confucius because they shared his vision and to varying degrees took part in his mission to bring moral order to an increasingly fragmented world.
That mission was difficult and even dangerous.
Confucius himself suffered from joblessness, homelessness, starvation, and occasionally life-threatening violence. Yet his faith in the survivability of the culture that he cherished and the workability of the approach to teaching that he propounded was so steadfast that he convinced his followers as well as himself that heaven was on their side.
Since the death of King Wen [founder of the Zhou dynasty] does not the mission of culture wen rest here in me?
If heaven intends this culture to be destroyed, those who come after me will not be able to have any part of it. If heaven does not intend this culture to be destroyed, then what can the men of Kuang do to me? To him, learning not only broadened his knowledge and deepened his self-awareness but also defined who he was.
He frankly admitted that he was not born endowed with knowledge, nor did he belong to the class of men who could transform society without knowledge. Rather, he reported that he used his ears widely and followed what was good in what he had heard and used his eyes widely and retained in his mind what he had seen.Confucius was a Chinese philosopher who lived and taught in a period when the unified Chou kingdom had split into a number of feudal states.
The subjects that will be talked about is: The philosopher himself, the Analects and what they represent, and lastly the teachings and what a single.
Hong Xiuquan (洪秀全) (1 January – 1 June ), born Hong Huoxiu and with the courtesy name Renkun, was a Hakka Chinese leader of the Taiping Rebellion against the Qing benjaminpohle.com established the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom over varying portions of southern China, with himself as the "Heavenly King" and self-proclaimed brother of Jesus Christ.
10/22/12 World Civ 1 Confucius essay Confucius was a philosopher, a teacher and a political figure. Confucius was born in B.C. in Tuo, China. He founded Confucianism, which became a model for the way Chinese society developed over the centuries.
Confucius died in B.C. in Qufu, China. Today he is widely considered one of the most influential thinkers in Chinese history. Teachings of Confucius Essay Sample Confucius had been very consistent in saying that the desire to obtain much profit should be avoided by man because it causes man to do evil and act evil against others.
Essay on The Life and Teachings of Confucius - Confucius was a Chinese philosopher who lived and taught in a period when the unified Chou kingdom had split into a number of feudal states. Read the wonderfully enlightening, liberating Teachings from Lao Tzu and Chuang Tzu, eminent Taoist sages of over years ago, adepts of the way of true immortality.